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Control Systems Technology
by: Curtis D. Johnson; Heidar Malki, both of University of Houston, College of Technology
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Book Description
This text was written to fill a very important educational niche in the broad spectrum of control systems knowledge. That niche lies between the handson electromechanical knowledge and skills needed by technicians and the highly abstract and theoretical knowledge required by scholars who research and develop new control strategies. This book focuses on the knowledge required by control systems practitioners to enable them to both understand and evaluate an existing control system and devise and design new control system applications. The text presents classical and digital control systems with an emphasis on careful explanations of the concepts. Many examples illustrate key topics and the operations required to solve problems. The text is an outgrowth of many years of teaching control systems to students in an engineering technology program. It is written for a twosemester course, nominally separated into analog and digital control. The difficulty with this approach is that much of digital control is a spinoff of analog concepts. Therefore, the analog material by itself is more extensive than the digital. In practice, we have found that some of the material on analog control must be delayed to the second course. Although patterned after the course sequence expected for a particular educational program, this text can be adapted to other approaches. For example, Chapter 2 ( Measurement ) can be omitted by those who prefer to cover sensors and measurement in other courses. Likewise, if Laplace transforms are covered in an independent course, that section in Chapter 3 can be omitted or assigned as review. It would be important to include, however, the last section of Chapter 3, Analog Simulation. The text emphasizes an understanding of control system concepts, but also requires the use of computers to implement practical solutions to problems. There are a number of control and mathematical software packages which are of great value in the study of control systems. Throughout the text; the use of these packages to facilitate solving problems is emphasized, and Mathcad or MATLAB is used to illustrate computerbased mathematical procedures. An attempt has been made to emphasize the use of computers as a tool to implement the mathematical and graphical operations required to solve a problem. A Web page ([A HREF="http://www.uh.edu/ www.uh.edu/) will be set up for this text as a means for communication between users and authors, and also for sharing ideas and techniques related to teaching control systems. A solutions manual (ISBN: 0130906611) is available. It contains examples of physical and simulation experiments that can be conducted to enhance learning. Dr. Malki would like to thank his parents, his wife Layla, and his son Armeen for their support and patience during the long task of writing this book. Dr. Johnson would like to thank his wife Helene and his motherinlaw Lois for their continuing kindness while he undertook this task.
From the Back Cover
Control Systems Technology is a comprehensive text focused on the knowledge required by practitioners to both understand and evaluate an existing control system. The text also enables readers to devise and design new control system applications.
The text presents classical and digital control systems, emphasizing careful explanations of the concepts. Multiple examples and solutions illustrate the concepts and the operations required to solve problems. The use of computers to implement practical solutions to problems is also emphasized throughout the book.
Topics covered include:
* Introduction to Control Systems
* Laplace Transforms
* Constrol System Models
* Frequency Response Analysis
* State Space Analysis
* Introduction to Digital Control Systems
* Discrete Control Systems
Each chapter starts with an introductory section that explains the purpose of that chapter. There is also a summary that contains important points presented within the chapter. A set of review questions reinforces learning. Appendices on complex numbers and matrices will prove to be helpful and informative to readers, and solutions to select oddnumbered problems help readers assure themselves that they have a firm grasp on the subject matter.
Preface
This text was written to fill a very important educational niche in the broad spectrum of control systems knowledge. That niche lies between the handson electromechanical knowledge and skills needed by technicians and the highly abstract and theoretical knowledge required by scholars who research and develop new control strategies. This book focuses on the knowledge required by control systems practitioners to enable them to both understand and evaluate an existing control system and devise and design new control system applications.
The text presents classical and digital control systems with an emphasis on careful explanations of the concepts. Many examples illustrate key topics and the operations required to solve problems.
The text is an outgrowth of many years of teaching control systems to students in an engineering technology program. It is written for a twosemester course, nominally separated into analog and digital control. The difficulty with this approach is that much of digital control is a spinoff of analog concepts. Therefore, the analog material by itself is more extensive than the digital. In practice, we have found that some of the material on analog control must be delayed to the second course.
Although patterned after the course sequence expected for a particular educational program, this text can be adapted to other approaches. For example, Chapter 2 (Measurement) can be omitted by those who prefer to cover sensors and measurement in other courses. Likewise, if Laplace transforms are covered in an independent course, that section in Chapter 3 can be omitted or assigned as review. It would be important to include, however, the last section of Chapter 3, Analog Simulation.
The text emphasizes an understanding of control system concepts, but also requires the use of computers to implement practical solutions to problems. There are a number of control and mathematical software packages which are of great value in the study of control systems. Throughout the text; the use of these packages to facilitate solving problems is emphasized, and Mathcad or MATLAB is used to illustrate computerbased mathematical procedures. An attempt has been made to emphasize the use of computers as a tool to implement the mathematical and graphical operations required to solve a problem.
A Web page (www.uh.edu/~techl3v/ContSysTech) will be set up for this text as a means for communication between users and authors, and also for sharing ideas and techniques related to teaching control systems. A solutions manual (ISBN: 0130906611) is available. It contains examples of physical and simulation experiments that can be conducted to enhance learning.
Dr. Malki would like to thank his parents, his wife Layla, and his son Armeen for their support and patience during the long task of writing this book. Dr. Johnson would like to thank his wife Helene and his motherinlaw Lois for their continuing kindness while he undertook this task.
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction to Control Systems.
Introduction. Analytical Descriptions. Analog and Digital Control. System Design Objectives.
2. Measurement.
Measurement Principles. Sensors.
3. Laplace Transforms.
Introduction. Definition of the Laplace Transform. Properties of Laplace Transforms. Inverse Laplace Transform. Analog Simulation.
4. Control System Models.
Transfer Functions. Block Diagrams. Mason's Gain Formula. Controller/Compensator Transfer Functions.
5. Static and Dynamic Response.
Static Response. Dynamic Response of 1st and 2nd Order Plants. Characteristics of Dynamic Response. Relation to Stability.
6. Stability.
Definitions of Stability. Routh Stability Criterion.
7. Frequency Response Analysis.
Basic Principles. Control System Bode Plots. Bode Plot Applications.
8. Root Locus.
Introduction to Root Locus. Root Locus Construction. Root Locus Applications.
9. State Space Analysis.
State Space Definition. Solving State Space Equations. Simulation Diagrams and State Space Equations. Transfer Function in State Space. Controllability and Observability.
10. Introduction to Digital Control Systems.
Definition of a Digital Control System. The Difference Equation.
11. ZTransform and the Difference Equation.
Definition of the zTransform. Properties of zTransforms. Inverse zTransform. Difference Equation Solution.
12. Discrete Control Systems.
Sampled Plant zTransform. Open Loop Transfer Functions. Closed Loop Transfer Functions. Static and Dynamic Response.
13. Stability of Discrete Control Systems.
Conditions for Stability. Stability Tests. Discrete System Root Locus.
14. Discrete State Space.
State Space Equations in the Discrete Domain. Discrete State Space Transfer Function. Observability and Controllability. Discrete Simulation Diagrams.
Appendices.
Odd Problem Solutions.
Index.
Features
* Coverage of All major topics.
Presents technology and applied engineering students with important, logical, and traditional coverage of modern control systems material.
* 120 worked examples drawn from practical applicationsIllustrates every major topic in the text.
Enables students to see the abstract and mathematical concepts in practice, in order to better understand them.
* An entire chapter devoted to Sensors.
Teaches students about the measurement function in control systems from a practical, applied perspective.
* Coverage of Laplace Transforms.
Offers students with no prerequisite experience adequate information on this subject, and provides students who have already completed a study of this topic with a useful review.
* Essential features of Programmable Logic Controller technology.
Prepares students for work in companies that integrate control systems with the use of programmable logic controllers.
* Over 250 chapterend problems.
Gives students a chance to practice approximation techniques in order to learn the concepts of control systems.
* A dynamic Website.
Allows students and instructors to exchange ideas and techniques related to teaching and learning about control systems.
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