Industrial Preventive Maintenance (PM)

What is "Industrial Preventive Maintenance (PM)" and why does it need to be performed consistently?

Preventive Maintenance or PM is a written methodical procedure or set of procedures (instructions) for performing tasks on equipment, machinery, process systems and tools. Preventive Maintenance Work Orders (PMs) may also be assigned to facilities or areas of an industrial plant such as utilities, waste and sewer, HVAC, forklift battery-changing area, and grounds. Preventive Maintenance Work Orders (PMs) are often performed on specific intervals (e.g. bi-weekly, semi-annual, etc.) and are based on prescribed engineering principles to maintain or improve reliability, performance, and "uptime".

Who actually performs Preventive Maintenance Work Orders (PM's)?

PM's that require technical aptitude may be performed by in house employees such as electricians, mechanics and technicians. Journeymen status and /or a college degree are often desirable for these trades. Preventive Maintenance Work Orders (PM's) that require special skills -- such as certain types of welding, rigging, fabrication, high-voltage electrical work, etc. -- may be "farmed out" to licensed/insured Journeymen contractors.

How are Industrial Preventive Maintenance procedures "designed"?

For machine- and or equipment-specific Preventive Maintenance Work Orders (PM's). A maintenance manager (aka technical leader or maintenance supervisor) often refers to the specific machine or equipment manufacturer's operation and /or technical manual. The maintenance manager may then write a preventive-maintenance work order (WO). The WO will usually be generated (and subsequently completed by a mechanic, electrician or technician) on a regular time interval. For example, heavy-use or high-velocity mechanisms such as chain drives may require lubrication once per week.

What's the difference between "running" and "shutdown" PM's?

Some Preventive Maintenance Work Orders (PM's) are denoted "Running" meaning they should be performed while the equipment or process is in operation. Often, these are observational or note-taking PM's where a technician may, for example, listen for unusual sounds (e.g. rough bearings) or note readings from gauges or sensors. If anything needs attention, the tech may write a work order to address the issue when the machine is shut down. Shutdown Preventive Maintenance Work Orders (PM's) allow a technician to safely perform maintenance on machines, equipment or process systems. An example of a shutdown PM is one which instructs a mechanic to tighten all slop on gearbox-sprocket-chain drives.

What are some examples of typical Industrial Preventive Maintenance (PM) work orders?

A mechanical PM may direct a technician to lubricate power-transmission components, such as oiling chains, checking and /or adding oil to gearboxes, or pumping grease into all grease zerks for a given machine.

An electrical PM may direct an electrician to check all terminations in a motor termination box ("peckerhead").

Can Preventive Maintenance Work Orders (PM's) be performed safely?

Absolutely. Safety requires:

  • Forehand knowledge of dangers -- both apparent and hidden -- as well as maintained (refresher-course) training.
  • Lockout / Tagout and de-energizing of equipment and its power sources including: electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic and mechanical (tension, spring pressure).

Safety is also one important decision in separating Preventive Maintenance Work Orders (PM's) into the aforementioned "running" and "shutdown" categories.

Below you will find our recommended reading list for learning the fundamentals of Industrial Preventive Maintenance.

Fundamentals of Preventive Maintenance by John M. Gross Does your equipment always break down? Fundamentals of Preventive Maintenance
by John M. Gross "Does your equipment always break down?"

Topics include:

professional maintenance management, write workorders, additional inventory items, total productive work, master equipment list, reorder reports, into logical parts, shift files, computerized maintenance management system, generic equipment, total available time, your technicians, scheduling board, managed inventory, equipment manuals, equipment pieces, equipment numbers

Concordance ( an alphabetized list of the most frequently occurring words in a book, excluding common words such as "of" and "it.":

action activities allows area ask available avoid break building card change chapter complete completed computerized consider copy create data day decision develop developing does down equipment example figure files first form fundamentals get help helpful implementation information instructions inventory items keep know line list look machine maintenance management manuals need new number numbering once operation order parts people pieces plan plant pm preventive problem process product program project purchase put questions repair report required resources review schedule scheduling set shift should start step structure sure system take team technicians time tip track type use vendor want work workorders write writing.

From Book News, Inc.
This book/CD-ROM provides facility managers, maintenance managers, and plant engineers with a scalable, flexible seven-step preventive maintenance (PM) strategy that can be adapted to any environment. It shows how to establish PM scheduling, develop equipment lists, create equipment maintenance manuals, write effective work orders, and manage the PM system with or without computers. Tips and test questions are included, and the accompanying CD-ROM contains forms and worksheets from the book. Gross is a licensed professional engineer .Copyright© 2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Book Description:
Plant engineers and maintenance managers know from experience: All manufacturing equipment will break down, often at the worst possible moment. To survive in today's lean-and-mean manufacturing environment, companies must head off these breakdowns with a preventive-maintenance management program that's both systematic and flexible -- and geared toward minimizing downtime and maximizing equipment life.

Fundamentals of Preventive Maintenance provides readers with an easy-to-follow, economically sensible maintenance and work order management program. This results-driven guidebook outlines a 7-step process for designing and implementing the program, describing what needs to be done -- and why. Designed to transform an often unwieldy program into one that can be effectively managed, it provides hands-on techniques for:

* Establishing critical scheduling protocols * Managing the daily work order schedule * Developing and issuing preventive maintenance work orders * Monitoring the program and making improvements.

Provides readers with an easy to follow, economically sensible maintenance and workorder management program. This results-driven guidebook outlines a 7-step process for designing and implementing the program, describing what needs to be done and why.

Here's what reviewers said:

A Knockout How To Manual

Whether you use this as a bookshelf reference or a daily guide in either implementing or fine tuning your own PM program, the book is easy reading and provides a wealth of concepts, actual examples and sound advice. I've had the opportunity to watch this program work and it's dynamite. However, stepping up to this level and creating a new way of operation can be painful. John Gross provides the hard earned experience and guidelines to make your effort more successful and help you avoid the mindfields of being on the cutting edge. This is must reading for any plant manager, plant engineer or plant operations manager. For those running warehouse operations, the concepts apply equally well for facility and equipment support.

Great book on PM basics

If you are implementing a PM program, or just want a better understanding of the PM process, this is a great book. It not only walks you through the entire PM process, it also includes examples and photos of real implemented projects. This book is valuable tool for anyone implementing (or seeking to understand) a PM program.

Complete Guide to Preventive and Predictive Maintenance by Joel Levitt PM is the best approach, right?Complete Guide to Preventive and Predictive Maintenance
by Joel Levitt
" PM is the best approach, right?"

Book Info
Shares the best practices, mistakes, victories, and essential steps for success which the author has gleaned from working with countless organizations. Offers templates for developing your own tasking.

Product Description:
A culmination of 15 years of research, teaching, and consulting, The Complete Guide to Predictive and Preventive Maintenance shares the best practices, mistakes, victories, and essential steps for success which the author has gleaned from working with countless organizations. Unlike other books that only focus on the engineering issues (task lists) or management issues (CMMS), this in-depth resource is the first to give true emphasize to the four aspects of success in preventive maintenance systems-- engineering, management, economic, and psychological. This in turn will enable readers to have a balanced view and understanding of what is happening in their organizations. Blending concrete actionable steps and structures with the theory behind the steps, The Complete Guide to Predictive and Preventive Maintenance is sure to be valuable to maintenance directors, maintenance managers, maintenance engineers, planners, maintenance supervisors, PM group leaders, and PM mechanics.


  • Includes check sheets, history of PM, stories, photographs, and case histories.
  • Contains a glossary of terms. o Provides sample task lists for a variety of equipment with some of the logic behind each task.
  • Offers templates for developing your own tasking.
  • Includes protocols for detailed economic analysis with examples


Excellent Introduction
" I am half-way through this book and realize that I have used Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) for years. This was the approach we used because of HAZOP studies. If you look at the methodology, they are the same. It is an excellent book for first-pass economics of preventive maintenance (PM). Through numerous examples, he shows when to PM, when you are spending too much for PM, and when to just run the damn thing 'til it breaks. As I said, it's a great introduction. I have picked up Doc Palmer's book and can see I would be lost without preparation.

If there are any short-comings, it's grammar and spelling. There are numerous typographical errors. Most engineers seem to have taken an-engineer's only english class in college. I found the errors troubling but the writing clear and concise.

A very good book for a refresher (as in my case), or an introduction."

Great Book
I am working as a Area Production Manager , as a responsible of Maintenance . I saw my mistakes after reading this great book . Everybody who inside the maintenance can find something useful. It is easily readable and implementable.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness by Robert C. Hansen This book is the culmination of the many years of experience I have inside a large Fortune 100 companyOverall Equipment Effectiveness
by Robert C. Hansen "This book is the culmination of the many years of experience I have inside a large Fortune 100 company..."


effective runtime, value fulcrum, conditioned based maintenance, slowest scout, shutdown hours, each shutdown, shutdown strategy, key mechanics, total calendar time, quick changeover methods, shutdown work, bottleneck equipment, maintenance foremen, reliability block diagram, downtime events, hidden factory, asset life cycle, system failure rate, shutdown plan, proactive maintenance, critical chain, product changeovers, ideal rate, effective factories, changeover process

From Book News, Inc.
Concentrating on the development and measurement of true Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), this book demonstrates the correlation between OEE and factory output and provides an methodology to link OEE with net profits. It also helps develop an effective foundation to support Reliability-Centered Maintenance. Several Theory of Constraint applications are included. Hansen is a consultant and Certified Maintenance Reliability Professional .Copyright© 2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Book Description:
Written primarily for those responsible for the reliability of equipment and the production operation, this innovative book centers on developing and measuring true Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). The author demonstrates that true OEE correlates with factory output, provides a methodology to link OEE with net profits that can be used by reliability managers to build solid business cases for improvement projects, and draws on his own experience by presenting successful improvement applications in every chapter. Additionally, it will also help practitioners better understand Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and develop an effective foundation to support Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM).


- Presents all essential definitions, a practice application, including three methods of computation, and reconciliation of OEE and various losses.
- Provides the platform and reasons for maintenance and production to work synergistically.
- Helps to identify the "hidden factory" that exists within the current system in order to begin leveraging its potential into real bottom line results.
- Integrates the famous "Theory of Constraints" aspects into an easy to understand shutdown strategy example.
- Contains many practical examples throughout to illustrate techniques and methods in a way everyone can easily understand.

Book Info
Develops a minimum set of definitions, a practice application, including three methods of computation, and reconciliation of OE and various losses. Provides the platform and reasons for maintenance and production to work synergistically.

About the Author
Robert C. Hansen, PE and Certified Maintenance Reliability Professional (CMRP), graduated from the University of Wyoming with a B.S. in Civil Engineering. In 1998, he completed a very successful career with Eastman Kodak Company as an Engineering and Maintenance Department Manager in the Colorado division. In his 29 years with Kodak, he held various positions including ESTAR Machine Engineer, and Engineering and Maintenance Department Manager in Base Making, Sensitizing and Finishing departments.

While at Kodak Bob was instrumental in the implementation of key shutdown improvement strategies providing 9 additional production days, and implementing predictive maintenance systems and reliability projects culminating in a 41% reduction in equipment downtime per million linear feet for one of Kodak's largest sensitizing machines. Additionally, he was a member of Kodak's Worldwide Melt/Coat Managers Team for seven years and the Worldwide Health Imaging Finishing Managers Team for more than a year. He served on his plant's reliability team and was responsible for reliability benchmarking.

As a member of the Society of Maintenance Reliability (SMRP), Bob has authored two well-received articles for Maintenance Technology Magazine, "Unleashing the Power of OEE", and "General Tool for Acceptance Testing." As a speaker at the SMRP 1998 conference and at the 1999 MainTech South conference, he presented the OEE article.

Currently he is the Owner and sole proprietor of R.C. Hansen Consulting, LLC. It specializes in identifying and implementing manufacturing productivity improvements for factories seeking to improve Overall Equipment Effectiveness.

Excerpted from Overall Equipment Effectiveness: A Powerful Production/Maintenance Tool for Increased Profits by Robert C. Hansen. Copyright © 2001. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.
Leadership for Teams

Effective factories usually have coordinated teams that work synergistically with a common purpose. The teams, which are from all areas of the factory, have win-win relationships with their interdependent areas and services.

According to a panel of five reliability consultants at the year 2000 annual conference of the Society of Maintenance Reliability Professionals (SMRP), successful initiatives and programs are primarily driven from the top down rather than from the bottom up. In fact when asked, the panel couldn’t relate a single successful experience with a bot-tom up initiative unless it was first communicated to and accepted by the area leadership.

My own experience supports the concept that successful pro-grams can be implemented at the level of the ‘Champion’ on down. This can be seen where successful programs develop in one work center without ever transferring to other factory areas. When the person who championed the program leaves or transfers, all too often the work center does not sustain the high performance. However, the champions are able to generate new initiatives in other areas once they establish a rapport with the new community.

Management support and area leadership significantly influences the success of initiatives. To sustain a level of excellence, the total community--management, the line organization, and support groups--has to be of one mind. High performance work groups bridge the ‘top down’ syndrome by acceptance of synergistic team leadership.

Nearly everyone comes to work with a desire to do a good job and to be part of a successful unit. Your job and the security of your business depend on strong productivity and top effectiveness. Frustration comes when priorities are not clear and reinforcement is awarded inconsistently. Thus, a single metric--measuring the community as a whole-- can be powerful in bringing everyone together.

Let’s look at an example. I once facilitated a workshop activity aimed at improving the changeover time between orders for a packaging operation. This area had four similar flow-lines working around the clock seven days a week. The area had four shifts with four crews per shift, or a total of sixteen crews. Because each flow-line had two to ten changeovers per day, reducing the changeover time for the work area would greatly improve effectiveness. A workshop for developing quick changeovers using a methodology called Single Minute Exchange of Die(SMED)4 was selected for this task. SMED or quick changeover is cov-ered in section 8.3 of this book.

The operations manager decided to have one crew be the pilot crew that would go through the workshop and develop a best practice methodology. This approach proved to be more complex than expected. The area worked with approximately 130 different products, using 35 different processes. Many crews worked with more of one combination than another. Therefore, a typical changeover really did not exist.

In the workshop, the pilot crew categorized changeovers. They initiated improvements that reduced the majority of their changeover times by 40 percent. At the end of the pilot period they presented the results to the product line superintendent. Although they were proud to receive the superintendent's congratulations, they were shocked when he directed them to teach their methods to the other crews. They had not anticipated this directive, and felt that their reward was more work, beyond the original scope of the workshop. As a pilot crew, they synergistically made improvements, however other crews did not readily accept ‘outside’ ideas and passively committed to new methods. Thus, the improvement methods took much longer to be accepted by the other crews.

What actions would have been better? Proactive leadership would have led to faster results. When the operations manager initiated the request for improvement, he should have confirmed the efforts were supported by the superintendent and then communicated this to all crews. The overall objective should have been outlined with the strategy of how a pilot crew would be selected from volunteers, that this crew would make recommendations for best practices, and that all crews were expected to adapt these methods into their changeovers. If the results of the improvement were visible to the crews, and a system was developed to reward the community when the average changeover improved, then the methods would have been implemented quickly. The superintendent should have invested three or four hours of proactive leadership, earning the support of all the crews. By clearly communicating the desired goal and the expectation that everyone will help implement improved work practices, proactive leadership would provide the community with a com-mon vision. This style of leadership and communication open the way for rapid implementation and sustain improved practices.

Proactive leadership is a vital part of developing work place improvements. It can start at any level of the organization. As objectives are selected, approval should be solicited from the area leadership team to clear the way for rapid success. This book should provide the tools to generate compelling programs for higher effectiveness.

Here are what Amazon reviewers had to say about this book:

A very simple tool that saves manufacturers thousands.
If you want to make someone's day, (and they are in maintenance or production:>), give them a copy of Mr. Hansen's book on OEE. He shows us how to capitalize on a very simple formula to save thousands by investing a little time and the knowledge in his book. It surprising how many don't know about OEE, so don't assume they do.

The overall performance of a single piece of equipment, or even an entire factory, will always be governed by the cumulative impact of the three OEE factors: Availability , Performance Rate, and Quality Reject Rate.

Availability X Performance X Quality= OEE

With the knowledge and utilization of the OEE calculation, it's common to realize greater than 40% increase in your bottom line. If you're making a profit now, just think of the opportunity. More importantly, OEE is the glue that sustains other initiatives by enabling all to clearly see where to focus, and the results of those focused efforts. The exciting point is that OEE is a simple method of measuring, you can start utilizing it Today!

My challenge to the industry is to Stop OEE Ignorance, and spread the word about this valuable tool. So I recommend you buy Mr. Hansen's book today.

The Hidden Factory Unlocked
As a practitioner of Equipment Reliability and the person responsible for Equipment Operational Effectiveness, I found Mr. Hansens' views of OEE extremely accurate and useful. His interpretations and the posturing of OEE with factory output demonstrates the importance of reliability to the corporate bottom line. Many companies continuously ignore the importance of unlocking the hidden factory and don't realize the waste generated by ignoring OEE concepts. Mr. Hansen, in 274 pages, gives a complete and compact version that any corporate manager, by being proactive and a visionary, can utilize to change costs into profits. Reliability and OEE technologies appear to be fairly new to much of the industrial world. Mr. Hansen describes in his book a cultural change, that if followed,will help produce a payback welcomed by any corporate institution. His writing is easy to understand by both new and old Reliability/OEE practitioners. He has written in an orderly fashion with each chapter building on, and complementing the previous. The book describes in a step by step fashion the concept of true OEE, which when practiced will unlock the hidden factory. As Mr. Hansen points out; "If you are not supporting Reliability, then you are supporting failures".

Lean Manufacturing: A Plant Floor Guide by John Allen (Editor), Charles Robinson (Editor), David Stewart (Editor)Lean Manufacturing: A Plant Floor Guide
by John Allen (Editor), Charles Robinson (Editor), David Stewart (Editor)

From Book News, Inc.
This guide to implementing lean manufacturing methods outlines the necessary elements, articulates the rationale behind the initiative, and provides an overview of the process. The book offers advice on identifying the causes of waste, profiling the business' needs, mapping the value stream, crafting policies, problem solving, and applying lean tools. A five-phase framework for implementation is explained one step at a time. The authors are consultants .Copyright© 2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Book Description:
Written by the prominent consulting firm, Total Systems Development, Inc. (TSD), Lean Manufacturing: A Plant Floor Guide is a complete inventory of the elements needed for successful implementation. It provides an overview and a specific rationale for your initiative. It is an easy-to-digest reference to aspects of lean that you may not have known about. It's a virtual toolbox of information that can be readily put to use on the plant floor.

Internationally renowned editors John Allen, Charles Robinson, and David Stewart take readers on a comprehensive, 'street-level' journey through lean implementation, from the seven wastes and flow processes to developing a business case, using lean tools, and applying readers' newfound knowledge at greenfield and brownfield sites. Specific chapters on mapping the value stream, policy deployment, the five-phase implementation process, and problem-solving crystallize concepts with a pragmatic treatment. In addition, the brownfield implementation chapter is a must.

Amazon reviewers said the following about this book:

A user looks at the guide after implementing Lean
This book is written in a lean manner. It is simple, common and easy to read. It describes ordinary things and ideas very clearly and with one purpose. This book provides all the roadmap, tools and insight needed to allow plants to achieve excellence. The authors take great pains to address common failures issues. They provide a single source handbook that any plant can understand and use, a source with example metrics and tools, with logic and simple ideas to prevent and overcome the daily issues faced by the team that implements Lean.

This is not a book that deals much about soft issues. It is not a fuzzy warm feeling book about the people side, nor is it a motivational "you can do it" book. It is a frank easy to read book about simple steps and simple ideas that make plants great. It explains the people issues and the fact that unless working teams make the decisions and changes Lean will not happen. It is a long book, more of handbook length, but much easier to read.

Lean Manufacturing: A Plant Floor Guide fills the space between a detailed "How To" text and an overview. It provides coverage of every key issue in moving to Lean Manufacturing, offering rationale, plans and encouragement.

A great reference!
From understanding your customers needs, metrics, building a solid business case and launching a methodical process, this book has all the tools necessary for a sound lean transition.
Perhaps most importantly, it offers reliable advice on overcoming resistance and building an effective team.

Maintenance Engineering Handbook by Lindley R. Higgins, Keith Mobley, R. Keith MobleyMaintenance Engineering Handbook
by Lindley R. Higgins, Keith Mobley, R. Keith Mobley

Book Info
The latest science, technology, and management solutions for facility maintenance issues. The one reference you can bank on for current answers to virtually any maintenance question.

Book Description:
If your question's about maintenance, your answer's in here. No matter what the equipment procedure, technology or facility, the Fifth Edition of the Maintenance Engineering Handbook, edited by Lindley Higgins, will give you more practical information, cost-cutting techniques and just plain good ideas that you'll find anywhere else. Because ours is the only Handbook that covers every type of plant and factory, plus refineries, hospitals, schools and offices--and gives you the hard-won wisdom of 55 different expert contributors. Steamline your functions and improve efficiency with: effective systems to reduce breakdowns and downtime; a company-wide standardization program; new record-keeping systems that cut expenses; latest labor-saving computer applications; a 5-step program for simplifying repetitive operations; maintenance routines for all types of mechanical, electrical and service equipment; and much, much more.--This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

From the Back Cover of

The latest science, technology, and management solutions for facility maintenance issues

The one reference you can bank on for current answers to virtually any maintenance question, Lindley R. Higgins’ and R. Keith Mobley’s Maintenance Engineering Handbook provides the best of today’s strategies and technologies from the world’s leading experts.

• One-stop source of answers on all maintenance engineering functions, from managing, planning, and budgeting to solving environmental problems
• New coverage of the latest computer applications, maintenance technologies, and tools
• Strategies, equipment, techniques, and tips for facilities from industrial plants to residential complexes, institutions, schools, hospitals, and office buildings


• Technology updates
• Improvements in prevention and prediction
• Equipment testing and monitoring tools
• The latest computer programs
• Advances in maintenance economics
• Guidance on insurance administration
• New maintenance techniques for centrifugal air compressors, centrifugal pumps, and other equipment

Maintenance Engineering’s Most Current, Comprehensive, and Complete Reference

A McGraw-Hill Classic

Buildings and grounds
Computer applications
Corrosion and cleaning
Costs and controls
Electrical equipment
Estimates and budgets
Instrumentation and monitoring tools
Measuring, servicing, testing
Mechanical equipment
Organization and management
Parts and components
Personnel and policies
Practices and prevention
Sanitation and housekeeping
Specialized equipment

About the Author
Lindley R. Higgins, P.E., was a renowned consulting engineer, editor, and the creator of the first edition of this Handbook. He is deceased.

R. Keith Mobley, P.E., is President and Chief Executive Officer of the Plant Performance Group at Integrated Systems, in Knoxville, Tennessee. He has written widely on maintenance engineering and is a leader in the design of maintenance strategies and technologies.

Reliability-Centered Maintenance by John Moubray Over the past twenty years, maintenance has changed, perhaps more so than any other management discipline... Reliability-Centered Maintenance
by John Moubray

"Over the past twenty years, maintenance has changed, perhaps more so than any other management discipline..."

From Book News, Inc.
RCM is a highly structured framework that overturns many widely held beliefs about preventative maintenance. It was originally developed by the civil aviation industry and is now finding application in various kinds of industrial and service organizations. This guide, written for maintenance, production, and operations managers, explains how to implement RCM and what results to expect. Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, Or.

Amazon reviewers said the following about this book:

The definitive textbook on RCM
This book is the definitive textbook on RCM, the result of the accumulated experience of thousands of RCM reviews in nearly every industry and in dozens of countries around the world.

It presents RCM's distinctive "systems" approach to maintenance, offering sophisticated criteria for deciding among four kinds of scheduled tasks (not simply the replacement of individual non-repairable components), and equally sophisticated criteria for deciding among two other kinds of failure management policies (including redesign) if scheduled tasks are not appropriate.

If you wish to do RCM, you need this book plus a mentor to guide your early efforts. (How many of us learned to ride a bicycle without someone holding the handlebars?)

But if you simply wish to understand RCM -- you need this book.

An excellent book
It is an excellent book. It gives a more in-depth review and analysis from what Nowlan and Heap have done. It also gives a distinct defenition among the failure management technique. For aviation member, this book helps a lot to understanding MSG-3

Excellent book to be used to improve reliability performance
This book is well developed showing a methodology to improve or optimize your maintenance plans which is presented in this book as a team responsibility. Could be better? Yes, if the last section dedicated to Failure Finding Intervals establish relation or compare with other recommendations from International Institutions like ISA. I strongly recommend as an excellent book for Maintenance Engineers, planners or any person involved in asset healthcare program.

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